For my project pitch, visit: https://aimeestarcollector.wordpress.com/2020/05/18/bcm300-individual-project/#more-675
A few weeks ago, I received feedback on my digital hybrid trivia board game. The feedback was predominately positive with just a few areas for improvement. Christopher Moore suggested that I go over the history of IQ intelligence and specify what type of intelligence my game tests. He also recommended that I differentiate my game ideas from other games. It was essential for me to identify similar products in the market. Since my game is a digital hybrid, I need to find similar games in the market to justify my response.
The reason why board games are fascinating to so many is because their physical components (e.g. dice, cards) are addictive to touch and play around with. So, Moore didn’t want me to go too far into creating a digital game. Even though digital games can manage time, having ‘funky’ objects such as board arrangements, timers etc. add flavour to the game experience.
Overall, Moore liked my concept, gameplay and direction of my project and I need to ensure the material experience of the game permits users to feel engaged.
Similar Games in the Market
I’ve done research regarding similar games to my one. Alleswisser (2016) is a game that is the closest to my one in terms of concept and materiality. It’s a trivia, knowledge-testing game, with the goal to win knowledge cups in nine categories or to be the first to circle the board thrice. The feature here is that, by utilising an app via tablet or smartphone, questions and tasks adapt to the age and level of knowledge of the respective player.
Hybrid board games, e.g a combination of board games with digital content, is not a new concept. According to Manfred Lamplmair: “As long ago as the 1980s the first attempts were made with the Commodore 64, although it was admittedly rather impractical to take your computer to a board game evening along with its unwieldy monitor” (2019, p.g 95).
History of Intelligence Quotence Testing
Sir Francis Galton is considered to be the founder of psychometrics and he believed intelligence was inherited. In 1869, he published Hereditary Genius which made correlation between intelligence and inheritance.
At the end of the 19th century, the French education system was undergoing reforms. This meant that there was free mandatory schooling for children. However, there was an issue. Since the children came from different educational backgrounds (some didn’t attend school at all, others sporadically went while some attended regularly), these children needed to be brought together under a single education system. In order for students to be placed appropriately, they needed to be assessed. They couldn’t be sorted by their age since their educational backgrounds varied. This lead to the creation of the Binet-Simon test.
Alfred Binet and Thoedore Simon formed a Binet-Simon test, a multi-faceted examination to students of all ages. This calculated the mental age of the student rather than just the chronological one. They then calculated the average performance that students of different ages performed.
This concept of mental age was then adopted by William Stern. He used this to create an intelligence quotient (IQ). The idea of IQ was that it demonstrated the comparison between mental age and the chronological one. The mental age could be divided by the chronological age. This gave a fraction which then was multiple by 100. This gave a ratio IQ score.
However, the ratio IQ score doesn’t really work on older individuals because it is difficult to compare the intelligence between them. It is only useful on children. Therefore, researchers in comptemporary society use deviation IQ to measure an individual’s IQ. It compares your score to the average score from your age range. Your own score is divided by the average score from your age range and multiplied by 100, therefore resulting in a deviation IQ.
IQ score shows the potential ability of a person at the age they’re at. They may perform better or worse than someone older than them in the future (depending on what their score is). Comparing an older person’s IQ with a younger person’s one is not the point.
Later on, Lewis Terman was influenced by Binet and Simon and adapted the Binet-Simon test. Terman created the Stanford-Binet intelligence scale in 1916. In 1921, he gave the Stanford-Binet test to about 168,000 children. Out of these, he selected 1500 of the top performing children (those who received an IQ score of at least 135). He followed these children throughout their lives and wanted to see whether early childhood IQ predicted future performance in life.
He discovered that children with higher IQ published more academic papers, wrote more novels, more likely had higher levels of education, higher job status and so on as adults. This didn’t of course guarantee that all of the children with the highest IQ performed successfully in the future. However, Terman discovered that for most of the part, early childhood IQ predicted their future performances.
Then, David Wechsler created an assessment in 1939. He created an intelligence scale, which is now known as the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. There are two versions of this: Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children and the Weschler Primary and Pre-school Scale of Intelligence. These assess a number of different things. The tests would be completed in person with a trained psychometrician and most of the responses would be verbal. There is a lack of writing on these intelligence tests. General knowledge, explanation of phrases, applying rules to particular situations, memory testing were some of the aspects being assessed.
I had to narrow down as to what type of intelligence my game tests and what type of individuals may be best at this game. Visual-spatial intelligence is the type of intelligence that gets tested in my game. This intelligence has to do with visualisation and spatial judgment. Individuals with high visual-spatial intelligence are great at visualising and mentally manipulating objects.
According to an unknown author on russeullrowe, individuals have a gift for visual-spatial intelligence if they are “good at solving visual puzzles”, which my game involves” (n.d., p. 1).
A few changes have been added to ensure the game experience will be a positive one. As Moore said, there is an appeal in games if there are hard copy materials for players to hold onto and ‘play’ around with. The chance cards in my game won’t be in the app as they will be hard copy. I will also be adding a one-minute timer that players can flip and hold onto.
After learning about the history of intelligence testing, it gave me a better idea as to how I should organise my game. My app won’t reveal the IQ of the player as these scenarios are not enough to calculate it. Plus this game was made for fun. It doesn’t calculate your IQ but it shows you how well you can solve these scenarios, progress on the board, tackle obstacles and be the first to reach the end of the board. Because this game only tests visual-spatial intelligence, the IQ score therefore can’t be calculated.
appgefahren.de Insider 2016, Alleswisser Quiz Review (Deutsch), online video, available at: <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5UwSh0Sn72A&feature=youtu.be> [Accessed 13 June 2020].
Author unknown n.d., Alfredo Benet Junior (July 11, 1857 – October 18, 1911), image, available at: <https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Alfred_Binet.jpg> [Accessed 17 June 2020].
Author unknown n.d., German Psychologist And Personalist Philosopher William Stern, image, available at: <https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:WLStern.jpg> [Accessed 18 June 2020].
Author unknown 1923, Lewis Madison Terman, American Psychologist And Pioneer In Educational Psychology, image, available at: <https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Lewis_Madison_Terman.jpg> [Accessed 17 June 2020].
Author unknown n.d., Spatial Intelligence, image, available at: <http://intelligence-r.blogspot.com/2014/07/the-nine-types-of-intelligence-english.html> [Accessed 19 June 2020].
Author unknown 1928, Théodore Simon In Belo Horizonte (Brazil) In 1928, image, available at: <https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Theodore_Simon_ACERVO_CDPHA.jpg> [Accessed 17 June 2020].
Board Game Geek 2020, Alleswisser, online, available at: <https://boardgamegeek.com/boardgame/280192/alleswisser> [Accessed 3 June 2020].
Corayer, M 2017, History Of Intelligence Testing (Intro Psych Tutorial #117), online video, available at: <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zXRvbkUfhIY&feature=youtu.be> [Accessed 11 June 2020].
Furse, C 1903, Sir Francis Galton, painting, available at: <https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sir_Francis_Galton_by_Charles_Wellington_Furse.jpg> [Accessed 18 June 2020].
Lamplmair, M 2019, Hybrid Board Games: How Apps And Board Games Can Work Together!, ebook, unknown: unknown, p.95, available at: <https://media.ukgamesexpo.co.uk/prod/documents/Hybrid_Board_Games.pdf> [Accessed 1 June 2020].
New York University 1955, View Of Dr David Wechsler Seated At A Table Conducting Some Sort Of Test On A Patient, image, available at: <https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Dr._David_Wechsler.jpg> [Accessed 18 June 2020].
RussellRow n.d., Visual-Spatial Intelligence, ebook, unknown: RussellRowe, p.1, available at: <https://www.russellrowe.com/multiple-intelligences/visual-spatial.pdf> [Accessed 17 June 2020].